This page aims to provide links to resources and collections of resources related to antiracism, antiracism books and articles, and other antiracism projects; and resources on learning about and combating implicit bias, microaggressions, and stereotype threat. Sources have been linked when feasible and links are to freely-available sources unless otherwise noted.
- Howard University School of Law, Social Justice Guide
- Law Deans Antiracist Clearinghouse Project
- Stanford Graduate School of Business, Anti-Racism and Allyship 7-Day Journey
- Stanford’s Robert Crown Law Library, Anti-Racist Reading: Digital Resources at Stanford
- Texas A&M University School of Law, Dee J. Kelly Law Library, Antiracism Resources
- University of Texas, Tarlton Law Library, Race and Anti-Racism
- Derek Alderman et al., Reflections on Operationalizing an Anti-Racism Pedagogy: Teaching as Regional Storytelling, 45 Journal of Geography in Higher Education 186 (2021).
- Greater Good Science Center, Anti-Racist Resources (June 3, 2020).
- Lynette Lopez, Not Being Racist Isn’t Enough in America, Business Insider, Opinion (June 8, 2020).
- Kirsten Ivey-Colson & Lynn Turner, Ten Keys to Everyday Anti-Racism, Greater Good Magazine (Sept. 8, 2020).
- David B. Oppenheimer, What is ‘Systemic Racism’? How is it Different from Racist Acts Caused by Bigotry, Prejudice, or Bias?, Working paper (Sept. 4, 2020).
- Hillary Hoffower, What it Really Means to be an Anti-racist, and Why it’s not the Same as Being an Ally, Business Insider (June 8, 2020).
- Miriyam Aouragh, ‘White Privilege’ and Shortcuts to Anti-Racism, 61 Race & Class 3 (2019).
- Camara Phyllis Jones, Toward the Science and Practice of Anti-Racism: Launching a National Campaign Against Racism, 28 Ethnicity & Disease 231 (Supp. 1 2018).
- Alana Lentin & Justine Humphry, Antiracism Apps: Framing Understandings and Approaches to Antiracism Education and Intervention, 20 Information, Communication & Society 1539 (2017). [article behind paywall]
- Building the Antiracist University, Issue 3, Race, Ethnicity and Education Journal (2016).
- Yin Paradies, Whither Anti-Racism?, 39 Ethnic and Racial Studies 1 (2016).
- Mary E. Wheeler & Susan T. Fiske, Controlling Racial Prejudice: Social-Cognitive Goals Affect Amygdala and Stereotype Activation, 16 Psychological Science 56 (2005).
- Jason A. Nier et al., Changing Interracial Evaluations and Behavior: The Effects of a Common Group Identity, 4 Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 299 (2001).
- George J. Sefa Dei, Knowledge and Politics of Social Change: The Implication of Anti-Racism, 20 British Journal of Sociology of Education 395 (1999). [article behind paywall]
- George J. Sefa Dei, The Denial of Difference: Refraining from Anti-Racist Praxis, 2 Race Ethnicity & Education 17 (1999). [article behind paywall]
- Derald Wing Sue et al., Microintervention Strategies: What You Can Do to Disarm and Dismantle Individual and Systemic Racism and Bias (2021).
- Ibram X. Kendi, How to be an Antiracist (2019).
- Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America (5th ed. 2017).
- Sander L. Gilman & James M. Thomas, Are Racists Crazy? How Prejudice, Racism, and Antisemitism Became Markers of Insanity (2016).
- Ibram X. Kendi, Stamped from the Beginning: The Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America (2016).
- Daira Roithmayr, Reproducing Racism: How Everyday Choices Lock In White Advantage (2014).
- George J. Sefa Dei, Leeno Luke Karumanchery & Nisha Karumanchery-Luik, Playing the Race Card: Exposing White Power and Privilege (2007).
- Critical Issues in Anti-Racist Research Methodologies (George J. Sefa Dei & Gurpreet Singh Johal eds., 2005).
- Anti-Racist Feminism: Critical Race and Gender Studies (Agnes Calliste & George J. Sefa Dei eds., 2000).
- Power, Knowledge and Anti-Racism Education: A Critical Reader (George J. Sefa Dei, Agnes Calliste & Margarida Aguiar eds., 2000).
- George Sefa Dei, Anti-Racism Education: Theory & Practice (1996).
Articles & Online Resources
- American Bar Association Implicit Bias Taskforce, Implicit Bias: An Annotated Bibliography for the Bench and Bar.
- Project Implicit
- Washington University of St. Louis, Diversity & Inclusion Support for Hiring Faculty, Implicit Bias Annotated Bibliography.
Note: because of the depth of resources available through the above sources, we have chosen to link to them, rather than duplicate their extensive efforts here, and encourage users to explore the resources contained in their extensive resources. The below sections focuses on newer articles.
- Karin C. Calaza et al., Facing Racism and Sexism in Science by Fighting Against Social Implicit Bias: A Latina and Black Woman’s Perspective, 12 Frontiers in Psychology (2021), https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.671481.
- Ivuoma N. Omyeador et al., Moving Beyond Implicit Bias Training: Policy Insights for Increasing Organizational Diversity, 8 Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2021). [article behind paywall]
- Rory Bahadur & Liyun Zhang, Socratic Teaching and Learning Styles: Exposing the Pervasiveness of Implicit Bias and White Privilege in Legal Pedagogy, 18 Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal 114 (2021).
- Yasit Billoo, Implicit Bias and its Application in the Life of a Lawyer, Florida Bar Journal (March/April 2019, at 10).
- Barbara Applebaum, Remediating Campus Climate: Implicit Bias Training is not Enough, 38 Studies in Philosophy and Education 129 (2019). [article behind paywall]
- Alex Madva, Implicit Bias, Moods, and Moral Responsibility, 99:S1 Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 53 (2018). [article behind paywall]
- Jessi Lee Jackson, The Non-Performativity of Implicit Bias Training, 112 Radical Teacher 46 (2018).
- Michael Selmi, The Paradox of Implicit Bias and a Plea for a New Narrative, 50 Arizona State Law Journal 193 (2018).
- Shirley Anne Tate & Damien Page, Whiteliness and Institutional Racism: Hiding Behind (Un)Conscious Bias, 13 Ethics and Education 141 (2018). [article behind paywall]
- Bertram Gawronski & Galen V. Bodenhausen, Beyond Persons and Situations: An Interactionist Approach to Understanding Implicit Bias, 28:4 Psychological Inquiry 268 (2017). [article behind paywall]
- Andrew M. Rivers et al., Implicit Bias Reflects the Personal and the Social, 28 Psychological Inquiry 301 (2017).
- Natalie Daumeyer et al., Thinking Structurally about Implicit Bias: Some Peril, Lots of Promise, 28 Psychological Inquiry, 258 (2017).
- Amanda Golbeck et al., A Conversation about Implicit Bias, 32 Statistical Journal of the IAOS (International Association for Official Statistics) 739 (2016).
- Darren Lenard Hutchinson, “Continually Reminded of Their Inferior Position”: Social Dominance, Implicit Bias, Criminality, and Race, 46 Journal of Law & Policy 23 (2016).
- Katherine Puddifoot, Dissolving the Epistemic/Ethical Dilemma Over Implicit Bias, 20 Philosophical Explorations: An International Journal for the Philosophy of Mind and Action 73 (2016).
- Mahzarin R. Banaji et al., When Bias is Implicit, How Might We Think About Repairing Harm?, 6 Current Opinion in Psychology 183 (2015). [article behind paywall]
- Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity, Implicit Bias (2014).
- L. Elizabeth Sarine, Regulating the Social Pollution of Systemic Discrimination Caused by Implicit Bias, 100 California Law Review 1359 (2012).
- Hart Blanton et al., Decoding the Implicit Association Test: Implications for Criterion Prediction, 42 Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 192 (2006). [article behind paywall]
- Anthony G. Greenwald & Mahzarin R. Banaji, Implicit Social Cognition: Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Stereotypes, 102 Psychological Review 4 (1995).
- An Introduction to Implicit Bias: Knowledge, Justice, and the Social Mind (Erin Beeghly & Alex Madva eds., 2020).
- Jennifer L. Eberhardt, Biased: Uncovering the Hidden Prejudice that Shapes What We See, Think, and Do (2020).
- La’Wana Harris, Diversity Beyond Lip Service: A Coaching Guide for Challenging Bias (2019).
- Gina Laura Gullo, Kelly Capatosto & Cheryl Staats, Implicit Bias in Schools: A Practitioner’s Guide (2019).
- Jonathan Kahn, Race on the Brain: What Implicit Bias Gets Wrong About the Struggle for Racial Justice (2018).
- Tiffany Jana & Matthew Freeman, Overcoming Bias: Building Authentic Relationships Across Differences (2016).
- Mary E. Kite & Bernard E. Whitley, Jr., The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination (3d ed. 2016).
- Sondra B. Thiederman, 3 Keys to Defeating Unconscious Bias: Watch, Think, Act (2015).
- Howard J. Ross, Everyday Bias: Identifying and Navigating Unconscious Judgments in our Daily Lives (2014).
- Mahzarin R. Banaji & Anthony G. Greenwald, Blindspot: Hidden Biases of Good People (2013).
- Geoffrey Beattie, Our Racist Heart? An Exploration of Unconscious Prejudice in Everyday Life (2013).
- Meena Thuraisingham, in collaboration with Wolfgang Lehmacher, The Secret Life of Decisions: How Unconscious Bias Subverts your Judgement (2013).
- Justin D. Levinson & Robert J. Smith, eds., Implicit Racial Bias Across the Law (2012).
- Psychology of Bias (Glenn W. Mills & Sarah J. Stone eds., 2012).
- Moving Beyond Prejudice Reduction: Pathways to Positive Intergroup Relations (Linda R. Tropp & Robyn K. Mallett eds., 2011).
- Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow (2011).
Microaggressions are “brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative [racial, sexual, identity, gender, religious, etc.] slights and insults.” (Derald Wing Sue et al., Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice, 62 American Psychologist 271, 271 (2007) [article behind paywall])
Articles & Online Resources
- Rachel E. Gartner, A New Gender Microaggressions Taxonomy for Undergraduate Women on College Campuses: A Qualitative Examination, 27 Violence Against Women 2768 (2021).
- Izram Chaudry, “I felt like I was being watched”: The Hypervisibility of Muslim Students in Higher Education, 53 Educational Philosophy and Theory 257 (2021).
- Marcus A. Cherry & Melanie M. Wilcox, Sexist Microaggressions: Traumatic Stressors Mediated by Self-Compassion, 49 The Counseling Psychologist 106 (2021).
- Justin Evan Lerner, Social work the “white way”: Helping white students self-reflect on a culture of whiteness in the classroom and beyond, Social Work Education (2021). [article behind paywall]
- Emily Halvorson, “Sticks and stones”: experiencing microaggressions from the perspectives of the victim, bystander, and perpetrator (2021) (B.A. thesis, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga).
- Moin Syed, The Logic of Microaggressions Assumes a Racist Society, 16 Perspectives on Psychological Science 926 (2021).
- Nadia Ayala-Lopez & Zahra Shajani-Yi, The Toll of Preconceived Notions, 6 The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine 319 (2021).
- Nadena Doherty et al., The university went to “decolonise” and all they brought back was lousy diversity double-speak! Critical race counter-stories from faculty of colour in “decolonial” times, 53 Educational Philosophy and Theory 233 (2021).
- Janiah Lambert, The Utilization and Experiences of Safe Places for Black Transgender Individuals and Students (2021) (poster).
- Ashlee A. Lambert, “What Are You?”: An Autocritography of Language, Stereotypes, and Microaggressions, 2 Journal of Autoethnography 13 (2021).
- Kristen Rogers, Dear Anti-Racist Allies: Here’s How to Respond to Microaggressions, CNN Health (June 6, 2020).
- Hahna Yoon, How to Respond to Microaggressions: Should you let that comment slide, or address it head on? Is it more harm than it’s worth? We can help, New York Times (March 3, 2020).
- Andrew Limbong, Microaggressions Are A Big Deal: How To Talk Them Out And When To Walk Away, NPR.org, LifeKit (June 9, 2020).
- Dotun Ogunyemi, Camille Clare, Yaritzy M. Astudillo, Eugene Marseille & Sun Kim, Microaggressions in the Learning Environment: A Systematic Review, 13(2) Journal of Diversity in Higher Education 97 (2020).
- Nantiya Ruan, Papercuts: Hierarchical Microaggressions in Law Schools, 31 Hastings Women’s Law Journal 3 (2020).
- Rob Eschmann, Unmasking Racism: Students of Color and Expressions of Racism in Online Spaces, 67 Social Problems 418 (2020).
- Ella F. Washington, Alison Hall Birch & Laura Morgan Roberts, When and How to Respond to Microaggressions, Harvard Business Review (July 3, 2020).
- P.P. Liu & L. Quezada, Associations Between Microaggression and Adjustment Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic and Narrative Review, 145 Psychological Bulletin 45 (2019). [article behind paywall]
- Derald Wing Sue, Sarah Alsaidi, Michael N. Awad, Elizabeth Glaeser, Cassandra Z. Calle & Narolyn Mendez, Disarming Racial Microaggressions: Microintervention Strategies for Targets, White Allies, and Bystanders, 74(1) American Psychologist 128 (2019).
- Shardé M. Davis, When Sistahs Support Sistahs: A Process of Supporting Communication about Racial Microaggressions among Black Women, 86 Communication Monograph 133 (2018). [article behind paywall]
- Gina Torino, How Racism and Microaggressions Lead to Worse Health, Center for Health Journalism (Nov. 10, 2017).
- Barbara Diamond, Panel Handout: Microaggressions and Implicit Bias on Campus – Microaggression Theory: A Selected Bibliography 2016.
- Kevin L. Nadal, A Guide to Responding to Microaggressions, 2 CUNY Forum 71 (2014).
- Gloria Wong et al., The What, the Why, and the How: A Review of Racial Microaggressions Research in Psychology, 6 Race and Social Problems 181 (2014).
- Greg Boysen, Teacher and Student Perceptions of Microaggressions in College Classrooms, 60 College Teaching 122 (2012). [article behind paywall]
- University of California Santa Cruz, Academic Affairs, Tool: Recognizing Microaggressions and the Messages They Send (adapted from Derald Wing Sue, Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation (2010)).
- D.W. Sue et al., Racial Microaggressions and Difficult Dialogues on Race in the Classroom, 15 Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 183 (2009). [article behind paywall]
- Derald Wing Sue et al., Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice, 62 American Psychologist 271 (2007). [article behind paywall]
- Derald Wing Sue & Lisa Spanierman, Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation (2d ed. 2020).
- Daniel G. Solorzano & Lindsey Perez Huber, Racial Microaggressions: Using Critical Race Theory to Respond to Everyday Racism (2020).
- Tiffany Jana and Michael Baran, Subtle Acts of Exclusion: How to Understand, Identify, and Stop Microaggressions (2020).
- Regina Rini, The Ethics of Microaggression (2020).
- Charisse C. Levchak, Microaggressions and Modern Racism: Endurance and Evolution (2018).
- Microaggression Theory: Influence and Implications (Gina C. Torino et al. eds., 2018).
- Sylvia Gonzalez-Gorman, Political Speech as a Weapon: Microaggression in a Changing Racial and Ethnic Environment (2018).
- Bradley Campbell & Jason Manning, The Rise of Victimhood Culture: Microaggressions, Safe Spaces, and the New Culture Wars (2018).
- Microaggressions and Marginality: Manifestation, Dynamics, and Impact (Derald Wing Sue ed., 2010).
Stereotype threat occurs when you are “at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one’s group.” (Claude M. Steele & Joshua Aronson, Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans, 69 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 797, 797 (1995).
- Una Tellhed & Caroline Adolfsson, Competence and Confusion: How Stereotype Threat can Make you a Bad Judge of your Competence, 48 European Journal of Social Psychology O189 (2018). [article behind paywall]
- Bettina J. Casad & William J. Bryant, Addressing Stereotype Threat is Critical to Diversity and Inclusion in Organizational Psychology, 7 Frontiers in Psychology (2016).
- Sam Erman & Gregory M. Walton, Stereotype Threat and Antidiscrimination Law: Affirmative Steps to Promote Meritocracy and Racial Equality in Education, 88 Southern California Law Review 307 (2015).
- Gregory M. Walton, Mary C. Murphy & Ann Marie Ryan, Stereotype Threat in Organizations: Implications for Equity and Performance, 2 Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior 523 (2015). [article behind paywall]
- Douglas S. Massey & Jayanti Owens, Mediators of Stereotype Threat Among Black College Students, 37 Ethnic and Racial Studies 557 (2014). [article behind paywall]
- Michael Inzlicht et al., Lingering Effects: Stereotype Threat Hurts More than You Think, 5 Social Issues and Policy Review 227 (2011). [article behind paywall]
- Valerie Jones Taylor & Gregory M. Walton, Stereotype Threat Undermines Academic Learning, 37 Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 1055 (2011).
- Gregory M. Walton & Steven J. Spencer, Latent Ability: Grades and Test Scores Systematically Underestimate the Intellectual Ability of Negatively Stereotyped Students, 20 Psychological Science 1132 (2009).
- Toni Schmader, Michael Johns & Chad Forbes, An Integrated Process Model of Stereotype Threat Effects on Performance, 115 Psychology Review 336 (2008).
- Gregory M. Walton & Geoffrey L. Cohen, A Question of Belonging: Race, Social Fit and Achievement, 92 Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 82 (2007).
- Jason W. Osborne & Christopher Walker, Stereotype Threat, Identification with Academics, and Withdrawal from School: Why the most successful students of colour might be most likely to withdraw, 26 Educational Psychology 563 (2006). [article behind paywall]
- Joshua Aronson, Carrie B. Fried & Catherine Good, Reducing the Effects of Stereotype Threat on African American College Students by Shaping Theories of Intelligence, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology (2001), doi:10.1006/jesp.2001.1491.
- Jason W. Osborne, Testing Stereotype Threat: Does Anxiety Explain Race and Sex Differences in Achievement?, 26 Contemporary Educational Psychology 291 (2001).
- Claude M. Steele, Thin Ice: Stereotype Threat and Black College Students, The Atlantic, Aug. 1999.
- Claude M. Steele & Joshua Aronson, Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans, 69 Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 797 (1995).
- Steve Stroessner & Catherine Good, Stereotype Threat: An Overview.
- Brenna Reinhart Byrd, Supporting Graduate Students of Color in German Studies: A Syllabus, in Regine Criser & Ervin Malakaj, Eds., Diversity and Decolonization in German Studies (2020).
- Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application (Michael Inzlicht & Toni Schmader eds., 2011).
- Moises F. Salinas, The Politics of Stereotype: Psychology and Affirmative Action (2003).
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