Winning the Oil Endgame: Innovation for Profits, Jobs, and Security


  • Jonathan Koomey
  • Amory B. Lovins
  • E. Kyle Datta
  • Odd-Even Bustnes
  • Nathan J. Glasgow
Publish Date:
September 1, 2004
Publication Title:
Winning the Oil Endgame: Innovation for Profits, Jobs, and Security
Rocky Mountain Institute
Place of Publication:
Book, Whole
  • Amory B. Lovins, E. Kyle Datta, Odd-Even Bustnes, Jonathan Koomey, and Nathan J. Glasgow, Winning the Oil Endgame: Innovation for Profits, Jobs, and Security, Snowmass: Rocky Mountain Institute, 2004.


This independent, peer-reviewed synthesis for American business and military leaders charts a roadmap for getting the United States completely, attractively, and profitably off oil. Our strategy integrates four technological ways to displace oil: using oil twice as efficiently, then substituting biofuels, saved natural gas, and, optionally, hydrogen. Fully applying today’s best efficiency technologies in a doubled-GDP 2025 economy would save half the projected U.S. oil use at half its forecast cost per barrel. Non-oil substitutes for the remaining consumption would also cost less than oil. These comparisons conservatively assign zero value to avoiding oil’s many “externalized” costs, including the costs incurred by military insecurity, rivalry with developing countries, pollution, and depletion. The vehicle improvements and other savings required needn’t be as fast as those achieved after the 1979 oil shock.
The route we suggest for the transition beyond oil will expand customer choice and wealth, and will be led by business for profit. We propose novel public policies to accelerate this transition that are market-oriented without taxes and innovation-driven without mandates. A $180-billion investment over the next decade will yield $130-billion annual savings by 2025; revitalize the automotive, truck, aviation, and hydrocarbon industries; create a million jobs in both industrial and rural areas; rebalance trade; make the United States more secure, prosperous, equitable, and environmentally healthy; encourage other countries to get off oil too; and make the world more developed, fair, and peaceful.