This section provides information about DEI training efforts in professional schools other than law schools. For information about DEI trainings conducted as part of professional licensing requirements after professional school, see Does DEI Training Work?. Sources have been linked when feasible and links are to freely-available sources unless otherwise noted.
This section includes materials about DEI efforts in the academic curricula and practices in medical, dental, psychological, psychiatric, and other physical and mental health graduate education. These materials have been divided into three categories:
- Developing Cultural Humility and Cultural Competence, which discusses strategies for teaching these skills within medical education;
- Increasing Diversity and Representation, which covers approaches to diversifying the profession through the medical school admissions process and practices in medical education; and
- Operationalizing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion, which provides tools for implementing DEI in medical schools.
When articles fell into multiple categories, they were placed into the category they were closest to.
Developing Cultural Humility and Cultural Competence
- Cirila Estela Vasquez Guzman et al., A Comparative Case Study Analysis of Cultural Competence Training at 15 US Medical Schools, 96 Academic Medicine 894 (2021). [article behind paywall]
- Daniel Solchanyk et al., Integrating Cultural Humility into the Medical Education Curriculum: Strategies for Educators, Teaching and Learning in Medicine 1 (2021).
- Juan R. Deliz et al., Cultural Competency Interventions During Medical School: A Scoping Review and Narrative Synthesis, 35 Journal of General Internal Medicine 568 (2020). [article behind paywall]
- Xan Y. Goodman & Ruby L. Nugent, Teaching Cultural Competence and Cultural Humility in Dental Medicine, 39 Medical Reference Services Quarterly 309 (2020).
- Melissa R. Brottman et al., Toward Cultural Competency in Health Care: A Scoping Review of the Diversity and Inclusion Education Literature, 95 Academic Medicine 803 (2020). [article behind paywall]
- Mary Kate Worden & Nassima Ait-Daoud Tiouririne, Cultural Competence and Curricular Design: Learning the Hard Way, 7 Perspectives on Medical Education 8 (2018).
- Lorraine T. Benuto, Jena Casas & William T. O’Donohue, Training Culturally Competent Psychologists: A Systematic Review of the Training Outcome Literature, 12 Training & Education in Professional Psychology 125 (2018). [article behind paywall]
- Danette R. Ocegueda et al., Cultural Competency in Dental Hygiene Curricula, 90 American Dental Hygienists’ Association 5 (2016).
- Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan et al., An Examination of Cultural Competence Training in US Medical Education Guided by the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training, 9 Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice 150 (2016).
- Stephanie M. Swanberg et al., Partnership for Diversity: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Nurturing Cultural Competence at an Emerging Medical School, 34 Medical Reference Services Quarterly 451 (2015). [article behind paywall]
- Marla B. Hall & Jeffrey J. Guidry, Literature Review of Cultural Competence Curriculum within the United States: An Ethical Implication in Academic Preparational Programs, 5 Education in Medicine Journal e6 (2013). [article behind paywall]
- Arno K. Kumagai & Lypson Monica L., Beyond Cultural Competence: Critical Consciousness, Social Justice, and Multicultural Education, 84 Academic Medicine 782 (2009). [article behind paywall]
Increasing Diversity and Representation
- Omowunmi Aibana et al., Bridging the Gap: Holistic Review to Increase Diversity in Graduate Medical Education, 94 Academic Medicine 1137 (2019). [article behind paywall]
- William A. McDade, Increasing Graduate Medical Education Diversity and Inclusion, 11 Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 736 (2019). [article behind paywall]
- Sherrie L. Proctor & Courtney Owens, School Psychology Graduate Education Retention Research Characteristics: Implications for Diversity Initiatives in the Profession, 56 Psychology In The Schools 1037 (2019). [article behind paywall]
- Maria Soto-Greene et al., Diversity and Inclusion in the Academic Medicine Workforce: Encouraging Medical Students and Residents to Consider Academic Careers, 14 MedEdPORTAL (2018).
- Carla White et al., Institutional Strategies to Achieve Diversity and Inclusion in Pharmacy Education, 77 American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education (2013).
- Winona K. Lee, Vanessa Wong & Nanette Judd, Medical School Hotline: Promoting Diversity of the Health Care Workforce, 69 Hawaii Medical Journal (2010).
Operationalizing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
- Kupiri Ackerman-Barger et al., Addressing Microaggressions in Academic Health: A Workshop for Inclusive Excellence, 17 MedEdPORTAL (2021).
- Jasmin M. Harpe et al., The Development of a Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Committee in a Neurology Department and Residency Program, 428 Journal of the Neurological Sciences (2021). [article behind paywall]
- Bianca R. Argueza et al., From Diversity and Inclusion to Antiracism in Medical Training Institutions, 96 Academic Medicine 798 (2021).
- Moreu Gil, Isenberg Naomi & Brauer Markus, How to Promote Diversity and Inclusion in Educational Settings: Behavior Change, Climate Surveys, and Effective Pro Diversity Initiatives, 6 Frontiers in Education (2021).
- Scott B. Schwartz et al., ADEA Faculty Diversity Toolkit: A Comprehensive Approach to Improving Diversity and Inclusion in Dental Education, 84 Journal of Dental Education 279 (2020). [article behind paywall]
- Raymond H. Curry et al. Beyond Technical Standards: A Competency-Based Framework for Access and Inclusion in Medical Education, 95 Academic Medicine S109 (2020).
- Cindy Lai et al., A Framework to Promote Equity in Clinical Clerkships, 17 The Clinical Teacher 298 (2020). [article behind paywall]
- Katherine L Lupton & Patricia S. O’Sullivan, How Medical Educators Can Foster Equity and Inclusion in Their Teaching: A Faculty Development Workshop Series, 95 Academic Medicine S71 (2020). [article behind paywall]
- Rhonda Graves Acholonu et al., Interrupting Microaggressions in Health Care Settings: A Guide for Teaching Medical Students, 16 MedEdPORTAL (2020).
- Kupiri Ackerman-Barger et al., Seeking Inclusion Excellence: Understanding Racial Microaggressions as Experienced by Underrepresented Medical and Nursing Students, 95 Academic Medicine 758 (2020).
- Joshua Neff et al., Structural Competency: Curriculum for Medical students, Residents, and Interprofessional Teams on the Structural Factors That Produce Health Disparities, 16 MedEdPORTAL (2020).
- Stephanie Bi et al., Teaching Intersectionality of Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Race/Ethnicity in a Health Disparities Course, 16 MedEdPORTAL (2020).*
- Aparna Krishnan et al., Addressing Race, Culture, and Structural Inequality in Medical Education: A Guide for Revising Teaching Cases, 94 Academic Medicine 550 (2019). [article behind paywall]
- Candace J. Chow, Gretchen A. Case & Cheryl E. Matias, Tools for Discussing Identity and Privilege Among Medical Students, Trainees, and Faculty, 15 MedEdPORTAL (2019). [article behind paywall]
- Jennifer Tsai et al., Race Matters? Examining and Rethinking Race Portrayal in Preclinical Medical Education, 91 Academic Medicine 916 (2016). [article behind paywall]
- Sharina D. Person et al., Measuring Diversity and Inclusion in Academic Medicine: The Diversity Engagement Survey, 90 Academic Medicine 1675 (2015).
- Hanya H. Bluestone, Annemarie Stokes, Sue A. Kuba, Toward an Integrated Program Design: Evaluating the Status of Diversity Training in a Graduate School Curriculum, 27 Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 394 (1996). [article behind paywall]
Includes materials about DE&I training and practices in business school education.
- Alexandra Sedlovskaya et al., Potential “Blind Spots” Concerning Student Identity in Discussion Leadership Implications for Teaching and Learning, Harvard Business School (2021).
- Alexandra Sedlovskaya et al., Strategies and Tactics for Managing Challenging Moments in the Classroom Related to Sensitive Topics, Harvard Business School (2019).
- Stephanie A. Fernhaber & Lisa Hines, Integrating Social Justice and Diversity Discourse into Existing Classes within the Business School, 96 Journal of Education for Business 260 (2020). [article behind paywall]
- Sonya A. Grier & Sonja Martin Poole, Reproducing Inequity: the Role of Race in the Business School Faculty Search, 36 Journal of Marketing Management 1903 (2020). [article behind paywall]
- Myrtle P. Bell, Mary L. Connerley & Faye K. Cocchiara, The Case for Mandatory Diversity Education, 8 Academy of Management Learning & Education (2017). [article behind paywall]
- Patricia M. Flynn, Kevin V. Cavanagh & Diana Bilimoria, Gender Equality in Business Schools: The Elephant in the Room, in Integrating Gender Equality into Business and Management Education 26 (2017). [book chapter behind paywall]
- Susan M. Adams, From Theory to Practice: A University Promoting Gender Equality in Business, in Integrating Gender Equality into Business and Management Education 203 (2017). [book chapter behind paywall]
- Matthew C. Mitchell & Darcie Vandegrift, Student Perceptions of Internationalization, Multiculturalism, and Diversity in the Business School, 25 Journal of Teaching in International Business 25 (2014). [article behind paywall]
- Susan McTiernan & Patricia M. Flynn, “Perfect Storm” on the Horizon for Women Business School Deans?, 10 Academy of Management Learning & Education 323 (2011). [article behind paywall]
- Diana Bilimoria et al., Gender in the Management Education Classroom: A Collaborative Learning Journey, 34 Journal of Management Education 848 (2010).
- Kathy L. Milhauser & Tim Rahschulte, Meeting the Needs of Global Companies Through Improved International Business Curriculum, 21 Journal of Teaching in International Business 78 (2010).
- E. Vincent Carter, Deepening Multicultural Marketing Instruction: The Universal and Temporal Dimensions of Ethnic Diversity, 15 Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education 46 (2009). [article behind paywall]
- Holly E. Buttner, Kevin B. Lowe & Lenora Billings-Harris, The Influence of Organizational Diversity Orientation and Leader Attitude on Diversity Activities, 18 Journal of Managerial Issues 356 (2006). [article behind paywall]
- Derek R. Avery & Kecia M. Thomas, Blending Content and Contact: The Roles of Diversity Curriculum and Campus Heterogeneity in Fostering Diversity Management Competency, 3 Academy of Management Learning & Education 380 (2004). [article behind paywall]
- Virginia B. Levsen et al., Do we Practice Diversity in Business Schools?, 15 International Journal of Educational Management 167 (2001). [article behind paywall]
- Carol A. McKeen, Merridee L. Bujaki & Ronald J. Burke, Preparing Business Graduates for the “Real” World – The Role of the University, 15 Women in Management Review 356 (2000). [article behind paywall]
- Nancy E. Day & Betty J. Glick, Teaching Diversity: A Study of Organizational Needs and Diversity Curriculum in Higher Education, 24 Journal of Management Education 338 (2000). [article behind paywall]
- George C. Romeo et al., Enhancing Multiculturalism in the Business School Setting, 8 Transformations: The Journal of Inclusive Scholarship and Pedagogy 86 (1997). [article behind paywall]
- Ellen Foxman, Debbie Easterling & Jennifer Fodor, Diversity Issues and Business Education, 71 Journal of Education for Business 22 (1995). [article behind paywall]
- André Rae, Diversity Curricula in the Business School, 68 Journal of Education for Business 313 (1993). [article behind paywall]
General Graduate Experience/ Other Professional Education
Includes materials regarding DEI training and practices in professional or graduate school programs other than those listed above, or for graduate school programs more generally.
- Katherine Drechsler, Sarah Hessenauer & Leslie Jaber-Wilson, Engage in Diversity and Difference in Practice Competency: Exploring the Explicit Curriculum and Outcome Measures of Graduate Social Work Programs, 56 Journal of Social Work Education 341 (2020). [article behind paywall]
- Kelly Slay, Kimberly A. Reyes & Julie R. Posselt, Bait and Switch: Representation, Climate, and Tensions of Diversity Work in Graduate Education, 42 Review of Higher Education 255 (2019). [article behind paywall]
- Elizabeth Foster, Cultural Competence in Library Instruction: A Reflective Practice Approach, 18 Portal: Libraries and the Academy 575 (2018). [article behind paywall]
- Elizabeth Rupert & Audrey Falk, Teaching and Learning About Diversity and Social Justice at the Graduate Level: Students’ Attitudes Toward Classroom Sharing, 20 Multicultural Perspectives 167 (2018). [article behind paywall]
- Erica E. Hartwell et al., Breaking Down Silos: Teaching for Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Across Disciplines, 39 Humboldt Journal of Social Relations 143 (2017). [article behind paywall]
- Jerry Rosiek, Alison Schmitke & Julie Heffernan, Queering Teacher Education Curriculum: A Case Study of Lessons Learned in the Transformation of a Teacher Education Program, 19 Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue 3 (2017). [article behind paywall]
- Roe Bubar, Karina Cespedes & Kimberly Bundy-Fazioli, Intersectionality and Social Work: Omissions of Race, Class, and Sexuality in Graduate School Education, 52 Journal of Social Work Education 283 (2016). [article behind paywall]
- Alex L. Pieterse, Minsun Lee & Alexa Fetzer, Racial Group Membership and Multicultural Training: Examining the Experiences of Counseling and Counseling Psychology Students, 38 International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling 28 (2016). [article behind paywall]
- Melissa L. Morgan Consoli & Patricia Marin, Teaching Diversity in the Graduate Classroom: The Instructor, the Students, the Classroom, or All of the Above?, 9 Journal of Diversity in Higher Education 143 (2015). [article behind paywall]
- Vicki Vescio, Elizabeth Bondy & Philip E. Poekert, Preparing Multicultural Teacher Educators: Toward a Pedagogy of Transformation, 36 Teacher Education Quarterly 5 (2009). [article behind paywall]
- Marcus M. Stewart et al., Teaching Value in Diversity: On the Folly of Espousing Inclusion, While Practicing Exclusion, 7 Academy of Management Learning & Education 374 (2008). [article behind paywall]
- Freda Bernotavicz, A Diversity Curriculum: Integrating Attitudes, Issues, and Applications, 3 Journal of Public Administration Education 345 (1997). [article behind paywall]
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